Geographic information systems, referred to as GIS (Geographic Information System). In China, also known as resourceand environmental information systems. As the name implies, geographic information systems is the handling of geographic information systems. Geographic Information refers to information directly or indirectly related to the spatial location on Earth, often referred to as spatial information.
Q: What is the geographic information system (GIS)? Geographic Information System (GIS) What does it mean?
Geographic information systems, referred to as GIS (Geographic Information System). In China, also known as resourceand environmental information systems. As the name implies, geographic information systems is the handling of geographic information systems. Geographic Information refers to information directly or indirectly related to the spatial location on Earth, often referred to as spatial information. In general, GIS can be defined as: "for the collection, storage, management , processing, retrieval, analysis and presentation of the computer systems of the geo- spatial data , analysis and processing of the generic technology for massive geographic data . From the application point of view of the GIS system can be further defined as: "The GIS computer systems, geographic data, and user geographic data integration, storage, retrieval, operation and analysis, generate and output a variety of geographic information for land- use resource assessment and management, environmental monitoring, transportation, economic construction, urban planning, as well as government departmentsAdministrativemanagement to provide new knowledge for the engineering design and planning, management decision-making services.
Geographic information systems is the use of computer storage and processing of geographic information technologies and tools, a computer software and hardware support, information on various resources and environmental parameters distribution by spatial or geographic coordinates to a certain format and classification encoded input, processing, storage, and output to meet the needs of the application information systems of human - machine interaction. Through the operation and comprehensive analysis of multi-element data, quickly and easily the information they need to graphics, images, digital and other forms of output, to meet various application areas or research work needs.Geographic information system has been widely used in the national economy, in particular, played an active role in regional development, environmental protection , resource use, urban management , disasterforecast , population control , and transportation.
Application of GIS system is mainly composed of five parts, including hardware, software, data, personnel and methods.
Geographic information system (GIS) are generally divided into three types:
(1) a national integrated system . It is a country for its research and analysis of object systems, such as Japan's "Land Information System" in Canada, "National Geographic Information System", according to the national uniform standards, storage, including the natural geographical and socio-economic factors comprehensive information for the country to provide consulting services.
(2) regional information systems . It is an area for research and analysis of object systems, information systems such as Stockholm, Sweden.
(3) thematic information systems . It is a professional, or object for the main contents of the system, but also the development of most, the most common systems, such as seismic analysis system in the United States , France, geophysical information systems, etc..
GIS rapid development of the reasons
Geographic Information System (GIS) is an emerging scientific field, it is from the late 1960s developed. Occurred in the initial system is mainly on urban and land use information systems. 1980s, due to the acceleration of the Western countries, industrial process , the urban population is rapidly expanding, water shortages, energy shortages, shortage of land, fertile dropped a serious situation,repeated destruction of the Earth's ecological environment , forcing people to look for the protection of ecological environment and resources an effective means of geographic information systems to provide effective means. For example, the Three Mile Island nuclear proliferation events, the U.S. Government Geological Survey to establish GIS in 24 hours made ??a variety of possible spread of the estimate of the range and the loss of Location of Tsukuba Science City in Japan, the application of land information systems to make the decision analysis. Canada made ??a quick inventory and analysis of GIS in land resources and land adaptability. Global large area wheat yield estimation, automatic cartographic sounding of the world's oceans, volcanic eruption forecasts, cyclical global weather analysis and prediction are the different types of geographic information system support.